A brief History of Time which is an international bestseller. He was the dennis Stanton avery and Sally Tsui wong-avery director of Research at the department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics and founder of the centre for Theoretical Cosmology at Cambridge, his other books for the general reader include. A briefer History of Time, the essay collection, black holes and Baby Universe and, the Universe in a nutshell. In 1963, hawking contracted motor neurone disease and was given two years to live. Yet he went on to cambridge to become a brilliant researcher and Professorial Fellow at Gonville and caius College. From 1979 to 2009 he held the post of Lucasian Professor at Cambridge, the chair held by Isaac Newton in 1663. Professor Hawking received over a dozen honorary degrees and was awarded the cbe in 1982.
A brief History Of Time summary - four Minute books
15, 2014—68 years after the first. Daily summary was published—the final hard copy edition of the pdb for the President was printed. President Obama and other key national security policymakers now receive the pdb, six days a week, in a tablet format. Hard copies, of course, are still produced for officials who prefer printed, rather than electronic, versions. To learn more about the history of the pdb and cias briefings to past. Presidents, read the following related stories: a look back. The President's First daily Brief. Getting to Know the President Second Edition. Photo credit: Steve boxall/ m, stephen William Hawking. cosmologist, space traveller and hero. The Official Website, stephen William Hawking ( ) was the former Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge and author.
Todays pdb, cIA continued to produce the pdb until the Intelligence reform and Terrorism Prevention Act was signed in surgery 2004. This legislation created the Office of the director of National Intelligence (odni which is responsible for oversight and coordination of the. Today, the pdb is an ic product coordinated by odnis pdb staff in partnership with the cia directorate of Analysis (DA)s Presidents Analytic Support Staff. It is still all-source publication that the president relies upon heavily to inform his national security decisions, and cia analysts remain primary contributors. President Obama receives pdb electronically. The style, format and presentation of the pdb are based on the preferences of the current president. President Barack Obama, for example, asked cia to explore a way to deliver the pdb electronically.
It was also circulated more widely to other national security principals. The President's Intelligence Checklist, customized to President Kennedy's specifications. In 1961, President John. Kennedys aides requested a resume more concise summary of all-source intelligence on key issues—something small enough to fit in the presidents jacket pocket. Three days later, the. Presidents Intelligence Checklist (picl) was delivered to President Kennedy, who liked it immediately. From that point forward, the picl remained essentially unchanged until the. Presidents daily engelsk Brief (pdb crafted to President Lyndon. Johnsons specifications, replaced it in 1964.
In 1951, cia formed the Office of Current Intelligence (OCI) to consolidate the production of current intelligence. At the time, cia analysts were already preparing a closely held, all-source weekly intelligence publication called the. Situation Summary, which helped inform then-Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) Walter. Smiths briefings to President Truman. Shortly after oci was formed, the. Daily summary became the, current Intelligence bulletin, first issued on Feb. Current Intelligence bulletin would continue for several years, taking on a variety of forms and increasing in scope. In 1958, it became the, central Intelligence bulletin (CIB) and, on the recommendation of cias Inspector General, analysts began coordinating the. Bulletin with other members of the Intelligence community (IC).
A brief History Of Time summary superSummary
After the 1960s, the town became a major tourism centre of the Algarve. One of the main traditions still held in Albufeira is the festa em honra de nossa senhora da thesis Orada (Festivity of Nossa senhora da Orada). This is held on the 15th August and is a nautical tradition in which fishermen carry a statue of Our Lady on their boats along the coast. For more than 60 years. Presidents have received a daily, multi-source intelligence digest.
Truman was the first to receive what was then known as the. Daily summary on Feb. Although that first summary was much less formal than todays product, it marked a change in the way. Intelligence agencies provide strategic warning and tactical insights to the nation's highest leaders. Early Intelligence Products, president Truman's first daily summary, over the years, the daily intelligence product evolved to meet the needs of the president and his national security officials.
This document ruled the collective life of Albufeira. It concerned the civil, penal and administrative law as well as taxes, trade and the economy of the town. In 1573, king Sebastian visited the fortress of Albufeira, which had strong artillery. The fortress was able to defend the town against the constant attacks of the pirates in a time when there were constant attacks coming from North Africa. The earthquake of 1755 damaged a great part of Albufeira.
Many buildings were destroyed by the tsunami following the earthquake. A second disaster in the history of Albufeira happened in 1833, during a civil war between liberals and absolutists. Albufeira had been one of the first towns in the Algarve to support the liberal ideals. During the civil war, Albufeira was attacked by the absolutist guerrillas, resulting in the destruction of several buildings and the execution of many inhabitants. The guerrillas controlled the town for 4 years. Modern Albufeira history, until the 1960´s, Albufeira was a small fishing village, which mostly supported the local consumption of fish.
A brief History of Time summary
Al-Buhera was professional conquered by the portuguese forces of King Afonso iii in 1250. The Christian conquest and the decadency of the trade led to the decline of the town. The town became a simple fishing village. The city stood on the cliffs above the beach, and was defended by a wall, from which there are still some remains. Streets were narrow and all houses were white washed. This is still a characteristic of Albufeiras old town. King Manuel gave albufeira a new charter in 1504, granting it the status of a town.
In Roman times, Albufeira the life settlement was called, baltum. It had a port and was involved with commerce and agriculture. The roman influence is still visible nowadays, with remains of Roman bridges in Paderne and guia. The Arabs, who occupied the town in the 8th century renamed. Al-Buhera, which means, castle on the sea. During five centuries of Arabian rule, al-Buhera had an intensive trade with North Africa. Together with Faro it was one of the last Arabian strongholds to be conquered.
a whole (within the framework. The Archives, in the person of their head, participated in the preparation of the Archives Law of the czechoslovak republic, the first concept of which was already prepared by the end of 1923, but because of interdepartmental ambiguities it had not been passed by the. The castle Archives received important acknowledgement when they were invited to the Exhibition of Contemporary culture in Brno (1928). The busy research and organization programme of the Archives of Prague castle was interrupted by the occupation of the czechoslovak republic in March 1939, especially in the later years of the war. The Archives Department established in the Office of the german Protector did not carry out any repressive actions in the castle Archives similar to those in some other workplaces, but the archives here were, of course, affected by the newly executed German Document and Archive. On the basis of this there were gradually sent to vienna from 1940 onwards, by reason of "original provenance some of the archive material relating to the separated border region on the one hand and on the other also a part of the funds from. To these relatively unprofessional interventions of lesser extent there were then also added restrictions of a racial character from 1941 on, when the access of persons of non-Arian origin to the research rooms was forbidden by order of the german Protector. History of Albufeira: a brief summary. The history of Albufeira dates back to the roman Empire.
This so-called archival and documentary separation between the writing czechoslovak republic and the republic of Austria was completed in 1923. Thanks to this there were returned to the czech archives not only the written memorabilia and documents necessary for the functioning and operation of the new state, but also archive material of permanent historical and heuristic value. For the growing collections of the apc space was found in the vaulted rooms of the south Wing of the new Palace of Prague castle, at the level of the future south Gardens of Plečnik. In these vaulted rooms the official records had already been stored in the second half of the 17th century. Apart from the memorabilia brought from vienna there were also gradually amassed here the collections of written material, the "archives" of offices active before the new state had come into being. These were, in particular, the documents of the court building Office (Hofbauamt the castle Inspection (Schloss-Inspection, up to 1860) and the castle regional Authority (Schloss-hauptmannschaft, from the years ). Together with the organization of the fonds and collections taken over from the castle and from the austrian archives a reference library (from 1921) began to be built up and there was amassed a collection of graphic works, newspaper cuttings, excerpts from foreign archives (Sweden. The situation in the workplace was also regularly documented photographically, and stored in written form in documents (in the office files). The Archives were used by a considerable number of research workers from czech and foreign centers.
A brief History of Time - stephen Hawking
Date published:, brief summary of the history, the period. The Archives of Prague castle empire in the Chancellery of the President of the republic came into being in 1920. Their beginnings are linked with the peace treaties following the end of the first World War and the disintegration of the austro-hungarian Monarchy. Apart from the Archives in Prague castle (APC) there were also established in the czechoslovak republic (CZR) at approximately the same time the Archives of the ministry of the Interior (1919 the State Agricultural Archives (1919 the Archives of the national Assembly (1920 the Archives. The apc then, thanks to a happy constellation of personalities and politics, won themselves the position of the "family silver" of the new czechoslovak archive system in the twenties and the thirties. The first Castle Archivist was. Jan Morávek, a supporter of the subordination of the archive network of the new state to the ministry of Education and National revival (mšano) who was in favour of the establishment of the single national czechoslovak archives. Jan Morávek participated in the seeking out, separation and returning to Prague of the documents stored in the Imperial Archives in vienna.