With the acceptance of participatory research approaches by various funding bodies (for example, the department of health in England and the world Bank there are a growing number of programs that stipulate the use of participatory research strategies in the funded projects. However, "participation" is understood more as the involvement of any groups of people who are not professional researchers. As a result, the concept "participatory research" loses its clear contours. 17 A fundamental dichotomy can be observed in participatory research. On the one hand, there are a large number of studies in which academic researchers and professional practitioners collaborate; the practitioners are either involved in the research or carry it out themselves with the support of professional researchers. Prototypes of this kind of research in English-speaking countries include participatory action research (par co-operative inquiry, and participatory evaluation; examples in German-speaking countries are action research and practice research (heiner, 1988). 18 On the other hand, participatory research is conducted directly with the immediately affected persons; the aim is the reconstruction of their knowledge and ability in a process of understanding and empowerment. In the majority of cases, these co-researchers are marginalized groups whose views are seldom sought, and whose voices are rarely heard.
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13 building on kemmis (2001 wicks and reason (2009) draw on habermas's deliberations about "domination-free" discourse to develop the concept of "communicative space"—a transition zone between system and life-world—which, in minister their view, participatory research must open. The authors demonstrate how such communicative space must be produced anew in the various phases of the research process. They distinguish three phases in the process of participatory research: the "inclusion phase the "control phase and the "intimacy phase." In each phase, three problem areas—"emotional issues "task issues and "organizational issues"—must be addressed. 14 The authors also point out that the "practices of developing such communicative spaces new are necessarily paradoxical and contradictory with the result that negotiation processes must be continually engaged. Therefore, the research contract; the boundaries of the communicative space; the type of participation; leadership; opportunities to express anxiety; and the balance between order and chaos must be continually negotiated. The outcome of this negotiation process is a symbolic space in which, in the best case, the participants can trust each other and, thus, express their views on the subject under study. 15 Concepts such as "communicative space "the counter public" (dentith., 2012 or "discursive approach" (cook, 2012 which are encountered in participatory methodology, underline the fact that the challenge of participation lies in achieving understanding about the subject under study by means of communication. Although they draw on different concepts, authors continually stress how important it is that the research process open up spaces that facilitate communication. They argue that it is decisive for research that a safe space be created in which openness, differences of opinion, conflicts, etc. 16.3 Who participates?
The authors point out that a society's understanding of democracy—as consensus democracy or majoritarian democracy—has consequences for the extent of participation, the research questions and aims, and the research results. 11.2 The need for a "safe space" Participatory research requires a great willingness on the part of participants to disclose their personal views of the situation, their own opinions and experiences. In everyday life, such openness is displayed towards good and trusted friends, but hardly in institutional settings or towards strangers. The fear of being attacked for saying something wrong prevents people from expressing their views and opinions, especially when they appear to contradict healthy what the others think. However, participatory research specifically seeks these dissenting views; they are essential for the process of knowledge production because they promise a new and different take on the subject under study, and thereby enable the discovery of new aspects. 12 In order to facilitate sufficient openness, a "safe space" is needed, in which the participants can be confident that their utterances will not be used against them, and that they will not suffer any disadvantages if they express critical or dissenting opinions. It is not a question of creating a conflict-free space, but rather of ensuring that the conflicts that are revealed can be jointly discussed; that they can either be solved or, at least, accepted as different positions; and that a certain level of conflict tolerance.
These find expression in the basic principles of openness, communication, and the appropriateness of the method to the subject under study. Fundamental Principles of Participatory research.1 Democracy as a precondition for participatory research every type of research calls for social conditions that are conducive to the topic and to the epistemological approach in question. In contrast to nomothetic research, which can be carried out under almost any social conditions, participatory research requires a democratic social and political context. The participation of under-privileged demographic groups, and the social commitment demanded of the researchers, are possible only if there is a political framework that allows. The connection between democracy and participatory research can be clearly seen in Latin America, for example, where, after the collapse of dictatorships, a general increase in participation on the part of the population has been observed, and—linked to that—an upswing in both academically-driven and practitioner-driven. To put it pointedly: The possibility of conducting participatory research can be regarded as a litmus test for a society's democratic self-concept. 10 götsch. (2012) argue that in concrete research projects, too, the concepts of democracy held the participants shapes the design and the research process.
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The combination of practice change and collaborative research—as in the case of par—is possible and makes good sense. Nonetheless, action research and participatory research are also conducted separately, or applied with different emphases in one research project. As kemmis and Mctaggart (2005,.563) point out: "Not all theorists of action research place this emphasis on collaboration." Participatory research, in particular, shifts the emphasis from action and change to collaborative research activities. Especially thesis in health research, even research funders now recognize that the involvement of service users in the research process makes good sense. In her article, cook (2012) shows that, in the United Kingdom at least, public and patient involvement (PPI) in research is sometimes even explicitly required by funding bodies. In this framework, the primary aim is not to change practice in the course of research.
Rather, the aim is to produce knowledge in collaboration between scientists and practitioners. Therefore, some representatives of the participatory research paradigm stress that, besides the mere participation of co-researchers in the inquiry, participatory research involves a joint process of knowledge-production that leads to new insights on the part of both scientists and practitioners. From an action research viewpoint, reflection is not without consequences for people's everyday practices. From a scientific perspective, however, producers of knowledge would be well advised initially to evade demands for pragmatic utility. Therefore, the following elaboration of distinctive features of participatory research is intended as an invitation to the qualitative community to make greater use of participatory research elements—especially if they do not share the aspirations for change that are characteristic of action research. As the articles in this special issue reveal, participatory methods open up new and broader perspectives for the research of everyday practices, especially where the methodology and self-concept of qualitative social research are concerned.
Against the background of experiences in research with young people, the contributions by audrey. Dentith, lynda measor, and Michael. O'malley, and by Claire Mccartan, dirk schubotz, and Jonathan murphy, focus on the possibilities and challenges of overcoming established power structures in participatory projects. Jean rath presents a participatory approach aimed at extending the possibilities of co-constructing experiences and meanings. She crafts poems from interview transcripts.
As part of a "layered text these poems provide access to the many meanings explicitly and implicitly expressed in the interviews with the research partners. Stephanie goeke and Dagmar kubanski propose that participatory research in the area of disability research in the german-speaking countries be extended to include emancipatory, inclusive, and trans-disciplinary approaches. Moreover—like jasna russo—they effectively argue in favor of a radicalization of participatory research. All three authors contend that responsibility for research should be assumed by the persons concerned—in goeke and kubanski's paper, by the persons affected by disability, and in russo's contribution, by "survivors that is, people who have experienced psychiatric treatment. Against the background of democracy theory, monika götsch, sabine klinger and Andreas thiesen reflect on the requirements that arise in the course of the realization of a participatory research project. And finally, in her article on the development of participatory projects after the collapse of the military dictatorship in Argentina, sylvia lenz demonstrates the importance of democracy as a context for participatory research.
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The clear reference to participatory methodology is also paperwork reflected in the labeling of various action research approaches, for example participatory action research (PAR; kemmis mctaggart, 2005 co-operative inquiry (heron, 1996 participatory rural appraisal (pra participatory learning and action (pla and participatory learning research (overview. The common aim of these approaches is to change social reality on the basis of insights into everyday practices that are obtained by means of participatory research—that is, collaborative research on the part of scientists, practitioners, service users, etc. The articles in this special issue also differ in terms of thematic focus. The pupils' research project with which Veronika wöhrer and Bernhard höcher illustrate the challenges of involving secondary school pupils in social science research perceives itself as par in the classical feasibility sense. A stronger accentuation of the participatory side can be observed in Hella. She explores on the basis of community-based participatory research (cbpr) the preventive healthcare opportunities opened up by involving members of the researched community in the research. Taking a research project in the area of home treatment for people experiencing mental health crisis as an example, marit borg, bengt karlsson, hesook suzie kim, and Brendan Mccormack identify processes that enhance the motivation for participatory work in professional treatment teams and create communicative. In her contribution, tina cook reflects on the problems that occurred when conducting two participatory studies which focused not only on the participation of patients/service users of psychiatric institutions, but also on joint reflection on, and the development of, shared understanding about the specific characteristics.
This will also help to identify the untapped knowledge-creating potential of qualitative methodologies. Because participatory methodology poses certain questions about knowledge and research in a radical way, it has the potential to draw attention to hitherto neglected areas in qualitative methodology and to stimulate their further development. In English-speaking countries, in particular, participatory research has gained increasing importance as a research strategy within qualitative social research (bergold, 2007; bergold thomas, 2010). Especially in the debate on action research, systematic reference is made to participatory research strategies. Although there are numerous points of convergence between action research and participatory research, we believe that by identifying the differences between the two approaches one can does more accurately define the distinctive features of participatory research (cf. Bell., 2004). Another good reason to undertake this differentiation is that a systematic discussion about a participatory methodology in the narrower sense is only just beginning. Of particular relevance in the present context is the fact that within the debate on action research there is a strong movement which describes itself with increasing self-assurance as "participative inquiry and practice"—the subtitle of the sage handbook of Action Research (reason bradbury, 2008b). Numerous discussion strands, in which the participation of research partners is conceptualized in different ways, converge in the action research paradigm.
the individuality and self-determination of the research partners in the participatory research process, these strategies cannot be canonized in the form of a single, cohesive methodological approach, such as, for example, the narrative interview or qualitative content analysis. The dictum of process orientation and the appropriateness of the method to the subject under study (flick, 2009) is even more important in participatory research than in other approaches to qualitative research. In our view, in order to gain a deeper insight into the contextual structuredness of meaning and the dynamism inherent in social action, it is worthwhile considering the inclusion of participatory research elements in research designs. Moreover, we believe that—precisely because the participation of all research partners is the fundamental guiding principle for this research approach—a methodological design that can be classified as a participatory design process in the narrower sense, represents an attractive and fruitful knowledge-generating option when it comes. In order to place the articles compiled in this special issue of fqs in an overarching context, we shall first provide a somewhat detailed introduction to participatory research. After reading the contributions, we were prompted to engage productively with the characteristics, aspirations, and desiderata of participatory research. In the following sections we focus, in particular, on those areas in which further work needs to be done—or in which work has not yet commenced.
Consequently, this means that the aim of the inquiry and the research questions develop out of the convergence of two perspectives—that of science and of practice. In the best case, both sides benefit from the research process. Everyday practices, which have long since established themselves as a subject of inquiry, introduce their own perspective, namely, the way people deal with the existential challenges of everyday life. The participatory research process great enables co-researchers to step back cognitively from familiar routines, forms of interaction, and power relationships in order to fundamentally question and rethink established interpretations of situations and strategies. However, the convergence of the perspectives of science and practice does not come about simply by deciding to conduct participatory research. Rather, it is a very demanding process that evolves when two spheres of action—science and practice—meet, interact, and develop an understanding for each other. By participatory methodology we mean a research style, "an orientation to inquiry" (reason bradbury, 2008a,.1). The unity and justification of participatory research are to be found not so much on the level of concrete research methods. Rather, participatory research can be regarded as a methodology that argues in favor of the possibility, the significance, and the usefulness of involving research partners in the knowledge-production process (bergold, 2007).
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Table of Contents. Participatory research and resume Action Research. Fundamental Principles of Participatory research.1, democracy as a precondition for participatory research.2, the need for a "safe space".3, who participates? How is "the community" defined? 3.4, different degrees of participation. Distinctive features of the participatory research Methodology.1, material prerequisites.2, challenges and tasks facing all the research partners.3. The importance of reflection.4, distinctive features of the production and analysis of the "data".5, distinctive features of the representation of findings.6, academic requirements and funding conditions for participatory research.7, justification of participatory research projects.8, ethical aspects of participatory research, acknowledgment. Notes, references, authors, citation. Introduction, participatory research methods are geared towards planning and conducting the research process with those people whose life-world and meaningful actions are under study.