68 Vitamin d vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and sensible exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light in sunlight. Citation needed Products including milk, soy milk and cereal grains may be fortified to provide a source of Vitamin D 69 and mushrooms provide over 2700 IU per serving (approx. 3 oz or 1/2 cup) of vitamin D2, if exposed to just 5 minutes of uv light after being harvested; 70 for those who do not get adequate sun exposure and/or food sources, vitamin D supplementation may be necessary. Longevity a 1999 metastudy combined data from five studies from western countries. The metastudy reported mortality ratios, where lower numbers indicated fewer deaths, for fish eaters to.82, vegetarians to.84, occasional meat eaters to.84. Regular meat eaters and vegans shared the highest mortality ratio.00. The study reported the numbers of deaths in each category, and expected error ranges for each ratio, and adjustments made to the data.
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Vegetarians, and particularly vegans, have lower levels of epa and dha than meat-eaters. While the health effects of low levels of epa and dha are unknown, it is unlikely that supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid will significantly increase levels. 61 clarification needed recently, some companies have begun to market vegetarian dha supplements containing seaweed extracts. Similar supplements providing both dha and epa have also begun to appear. 62 Whole seaweeds are not suitable for supplementation because paper their high iodine content limits the amount that may be safely consumed. However, certain algae such as spirulina thesis are good sources of gamma-linolenic acid (gla alpha-linolenic acid (ala linoleic acid (la stearidonic acid (sda eicosapentaenoic acid (epa docosahexaenoic acid (dha and arachidonic acid (AA). 63 64 Calcium Calcium intake in vegetarians is similar to non-vegetarians. Some impaired bone mineralisation has been found among vegans who do not consume enough leafy greens, which are sources of abundant calcium. 65 However, this is not found in lacto-ovo vegetarians. 66 Some sources of calcium include collard greens, bok choy, kale, and turnip greens. 67 Spinach, swiss chard and beet greens are high in calcium, but the calcium is bound to oxalate and therefore it is poorly absorbed.
51 Vitamin B12 Plants are not sources of vitamin B12. According to the us national Institutes of health "natural food sources of vitamin B12 are limited to foods that come from animals." 52 However, lacto-ovo vegetarians can obtain B12 from dairy products and eggs, and vegans can obtain it from fortified foods (including some soy. Vitamin B12 can also be obtained from yeast extract products. 57 The research on vitamin B12 sources has increased in recent years. 58 The human body can preserve stores of B12 for up to 30 years, 59 and reuses the vitamin without destroying the substance. However, clinical evidence shows a widespread deficiency of B12 in vegans and, to lesser degree, vegetarians. 60 40 Fatty acids Plant-based, or vegetarian, sources of Omega 3 healthy fatty acids include soy, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, canola oil, kiwifruit and especially hempseed, algae, chia seed, flaxseed, echium seed and purslane. Purslane contains more Omega 3 than any other known leafy green. Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid but not the long-chain n-3 fatty acids epa and dha, which are found in low levels in eggs and dairy products.
While dairy and egg products provide complete sources for ovo-lacto vegetarians, the only vegetable sources with significant amounts of all eight types of essential amino acids are lupin beans, soy, hempseed, chia seed, amaranth, buckwheat, peanut butter, and quinoa. However, the essential amino acids can also be obtained by eating a variety of complementary plant sources that, in combination, provide all eight essential amino acids (e.g. Brown rice and beans, or hummus and whole wheat pita, though protein combining in the same meal is not necessary). A 1994 study found a varied intake of such sources can be adequate. 47 Iron Vegetarian diets typically contain similar levels of iron to non-vegetarian diets, but this has lower bioavailability than iron from meat sources, and its absorption can sometimes essay be inhibited by other dietary constituents. Citation needed vegetarian foods rich in iron include black beans, cashews, hempseed, kidney beans, lentils, oatmeal, raisins, fruit black-eyed peas, soybeans, many breakfast cereals, sunflower seeds, chickpeas, tomato juice, tempeh, molasses, thyme, and whole-wheat bread. 48 The related vegan diets can often be higher in iron than vegetarian diets, because dairy products are low in iron. 44 Iron stores often tend to be lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians, and a few small studies report very high rates of iron deficiency (up to 40, 49 and 58 50 of the respective vegetarian or vegan groups). However, the American dietetic Association states that iron deficiency is no more common in vegetarians than non-vegetarians (adult males are rarely iron deficient iron deficiency anaemia is rare no matter the diet.
These characteristics and other lifestyle factors associated with a vegetarian diet may contribute to the positive health outcomes that have been identified among vegetarians. 42 Nutrition main articles: Vegetarian nutrition and vegan nutrition Western vegetarian diets are typically high in carotenoids, but relatively low in long-chain n-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12. Vegans can have particularly low intake of vitamin b and calcium if they do not eat enough items such as collard greens, leafy greens, tempeh and tofu (soy). High levels of dietary fibre, folic acid, vitamins c and e, and magnesium, and low consumption of saturated fat are all considered to be beneficial aspects of a vegetarian diet. 43 44 Protein Protein intake in vegetarian diets is only slightly lower than in meat diets and can meet daily requirements for any person, including athletes and bodybuilders. 45 Studies at Harvard University as well as other studies conducted in the United States, united Kingdom, canada, australia, new zealand and various European countries, confirmed vegetarian diets provide sufficient protein intake as long as a variety of plant sources are available and consumed. 46 Proteins are composed of amino acids, and a common concern with protein acquired from vegetable sources is an adequate intake of the essential amino acids, which cannot be synthesised by the human body.
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33 34 Vegetarians tend to have lower body mass index, 35 lower levels of cholesterol, lower blood pressure, and less incidence of heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, renal disease, metabolic syndrome, 36 dementias such as Alzheimers disease and other disorders. 37 Non-lean red meat, in particular, has been found to be directly associated attendant with increased risk of cancers of the esophagus, liver, colon, and the lungs. 38 Other studies have shown significant differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians in mortality from cerebrovascular disease, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, or prostate cancer. 30 A 2010 study compared a group of vegetarian and meat-eating seventh day adventists in which vegetarians scored lower on depression tests and had better mood profiles. 39 However, vegetarians are more likely to be deficient in vitamin B12, leading to increased incidence of osteoporosis 40 and depression.
version of dietary guidelines for Americans, a report issued by the. Department of Agriculture and the. Department of health and Human Services every five years states: In prospective studies of adults, compared to non-vegetarian eating patterns, vegetarian-style eating patterns have been associated with improved health outcomes—lower levels of obesity, a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, and lower total mortality. Several clinical trials have documented that vegetarian eating patterns lower blood pressure. On average, vegetarians consume a lower proportion of calories from fat (particularly saturated fatty acids fewer overall calories; and more fiber, potassium, and vitamin C than do non-vegetarians. Vegetarians generally have a lower body mass index.
Jain vegetarianism includes dairy but excludes eggs and honey, as well as root vegetables. Macrobiotic diets consist mostly of whole grains and beans. Some vegetarians also avoid products that may use animal ingredients not included in their labels or which use animal products in their manufacturing; for example, sugars that are whitened with bone char, cheeses that use animal rennet (enzymes from animal stomach lining gelatin (derived from. 4 5 6 Individuals may describe themselves as "vegetarian" while practicing a semi-vegetarian diet, as some dictionary definitions pertaining to vegetarianism vary and include the consumption of fish, 9 while other definitions exclude fish and all animal flesh. 12 In other cases, individuals may simply describe themselves as "flexitarian".
26 These diets may be followed by those who reduce animal flesh consumed as a way of transitioning to a complete/and or true vegetarian diet or for health, environmental, or other reasons. Semi-vegetarian diets include: pescetarianism, which includes fish and some other forms of seafood; pollotarianism, which includes poultry; "pollo-pescetarian which includes poultry and fish, or "white meat" only; macrobiotic diets consisting mostly of whole grains and beans, but may sometimes include fish. Semi-vegetarianism is contested by vegetarian groups who state that vegetarianism excludes all animal flesh. 12 health benefits and concerns Scientific endeavors in the area of vegetarianism have shifted from concerns about nutritional adequacy to investigating health benefits and disease prevention. 28 The American dietetic Association and dietitians of Canada have stated that at all stages of life, a properly planned vegetarian diet is "healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases". Large-scale studies have shown that mortality from ischaemic heart disease was 30 lower among vegetarian men and 20 lower among vegetarian women than in non-vegetarians. Necessary nutrients, proteins, and amino acids for the body's sustenance can be found in vegetables, grains, nuts, soymilk, eggs and dairy. 32 Vegetarian diets offer lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein, and higher levels of carbohydrates, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins c and e and phytochemicals.
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There are a number of types of vegetarianism, which exclude words or include various foods. Ovo vegetarianism includes eggs but not dairy products. Lacto vegetarianism includes dairy products points but not eggs. Ovo-lacto vegetarianism (or lacto-ovo vegetarianism) includes animal/dairy products such as eggs, milk, and honey. Veganism excludes all animal flesh and animal products, including milk, honey, and eggs, and may also exclude any products tested on animals, or any clothing from animals. 23 Raw veganism includes only fresh and uncooked fruit, nuts, seeds, and vegetables. Vegetables can only be cooked up to a certain temperature. 24 Fruitarianism permits only fruit, nuts, seeds, and other plant matter that can be gathered without harming the plant. 25 Buddhist vegetarianism (also known as su vegetarianism) excludes all animal products as well as vegetables in the allium family (which have the characteristic aroma of onion and garlic onion, garlic, scallions, leeks, or shallots.
Those nanny goats, ewes and sows which are with young or giving milk to their young are protected, and so are young ones less than six months old. Cocks are not to be caponized, husks hiding living beings are not to be burnt and forests are not to be burnt either without reason or to kill creatures. One animal is not to be fed to another." — edicts of Ashoka, fifth Pillar resume following the Christianisation of the roman Empire in late antiquity, vegetarianism practically disappeared from Europe as it was in other Continents, except India. 18 several orders of monks in medieval Europe restricted or banned the consumption of meat for ascetic reasons, but none of them eschewed fish. 19 (The medieval definition of "fish" included such animals as seals, porpoises, dolphins, barnacle geese, puffins, and beavers.) 20 It re-emerged during the renaissance, 21 becoming more widespread in the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1847, the first vegetarian society was founded in the United Kingdom; 22 Germany, the netherlands, and other countries followed. The International Vegetarian Union, a union of the national societies, was founded in 1908. In the western world, the popularity of vegetarianism grew during the 20th century as a result of nutritional, ethical, and more recently, environmental and economic concerns. Varieties of vegetarianism roadside café near Kullu, india.
and vegetarianism has led vegetarian groups such as the vegetarian Society to state diets containing these ingredients are not vegetarian, due to fish and birds being animals. 12 Etymology The vegetarian Society, founded in 1847, says that the word "vegetarian" is derived from the latin word vegetus meaning lively or vigorous. 13 Despite this, the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and other standard dictionaries state that the word was formed from the term "vegetable" and the suffix "-arian". 14 The oed writes that the word came into general use after the formation of the vegetarian Society at Ramsgate in 1847, though it offers two examples of usage from 1815 History main article: History of vegetarianism The earliest records of (lacto) vegetarianism come from. 16 In the Asian instance the diet was closely connected with the idea of nonviolence towards animals (called ahimsa in India) and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers. 17 Among the hellenes, Egyptians and others, it had medical or Ritual purification purposes. Indian emperor Ashoka asserted protection to fauna: "Twenty-six years after my coronation various animals were declared to be protected — parrots, mainas, aruna, ruddy geese, wild ducks, nandimukhas, gelatas, bats, queen ants, terrapins, boneless fish, vedareyaka, gangapuputaka, sankiya fish, tortoises, porcupines, squirrels, deer, bulls, okapinda.
Various foods or treats, such as cake, chocolate, and marshmallows, often contain unfamiliar animal ingredients, and may especially be a concern for vegetarians due to the likelihood of such additions. 4, vegetarians may vary in their feelings regarding these ingredients, however. While some vegetarians are unaware of animal-derived rennet's role in the usual production of cheese and may therefore unknowingly consume the product, for example, 5 6 others of the diet are not about bothered by its consumption. 3, often, animal-derived products are scrutinized by vegetarians prior to purchase or consumption. 4, the results of a recent International survey suggest the definitions of vegetarianism are different in different nations. Vegetarians in some nations consume more animal products than those in others. 7 Semi-vegetarian diets consist largely of vegetarian foods, but may include fish or poultry, or other meats on an infrequent basis.
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This article is about the deliberate diet for human beings. For types of vegetarian foods, see vegetarian cuisine. For plant-based diets in non-human animals, see herbivore. Vegetarianism encompasses the practice of following plant-based diets (fruits, vegetables, etc. with or without the inclusion of dairy products or eggs, and with the exclusion of meat ( red meat, poultry, and seafood ). Abstention from by-products of animal slaughter, such as animal-derived rennet and gelatin, may also be shmoop practiced. 2 3, vegetarianism can be adopted for different reasons: In addition to ethical reasons, motivations for vegetarianism include health, religious, political, environmental, cultural, aesthetic or economic. There are varieties of the diet as well: an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products, a lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but not eggs, and an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products. A vegan diet excludes all animal products, including eggs, dairy, and honey.