42 Proceedings edit In preparation for the conference, eichmann drafted a list of the numbers of Jews in the various European countries. Countries were listed in two groups, "A" and "B". "A" countries were those under direct reich control or occupation (or partially occupied and quiescent, in the case of Vichy France "B" countries were allied or client states, neutral, or at war with Germany. B The numbers reflect the estimated Jewish population within each country; for example, estonia is listed as Judenfrei (free of Jews since the 4,500 Jews who remained in Estonia after the german occupation had been exterminated by the end of 1941. Occupied Poland was not on the list because by 1939 the country was split three ways among Polish areas annexed by nazi germany in the west, the territories of Poland annexed by the soviet Union in the east, and the general government where many polish. Heydrich opened the conference with an account of the anti-jewish measures taken in Germany since the nazi seizure of power in 1933. He said that between 1933 and October 1941, 537,000 German, austrian, and czech Jews had emigrated. This information was taken from a briefing paper prepared for him the previous week by eichmann.
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Somewhere around this time, hitler resolved that the jews of Europe were to be exterminated immediately, rather than after the war, which now had no end in sight. A at the reich Chancellery meeting of 12 December 1941 he met with top party officials and made his intentions homework plain. On 18 December, hitler discussed the fate of the jews with Himmler in the wolfsschanze. Following the meeting, himmler made a note on his service calendar, which simply stated "Jewish question/to be destroyed as partisans". The war was still ongoing, and since transporting masses of people into a combat zone was impossible, heydrich decided that the jews currently living in the general government (the german-occupied area of Poland) would be killed in extermination camps set up in occupied areas. On, heydrich sent new invitations to a meeting to be held on 20 January. The venue for the rescheduled conference was a villa write at Am Großen Wannsee 5658, overlooking the Großer Wannsee. The villa had been purchased from Friedrich Minoux in 1940 by the sicherheitsdienst (Security force; SD) for use as a conference centre and guest house. Attendees edit heydrich invited representatives from several government ministries, including state secretaries from the foreign Office, the justice, interior, and state ministries, and representatives from the. The process of disseminating information about the fate of the jews was already well underway by the time the meeting was held. Of the 15 who attended, 8 held academic doctorates.
The ministries to be represented were Interior, justice, the four-year plan, propaganda, and the reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories. Between the date the invitations to the conference went out (29 november) and the date of the cancelled first meeting (9 December the situation changed. On 5 December, the soviet Army began a counter-offensive in front of Moscow, ending the prospect of a rapid conquest of the soviet Union. On 7 December, the japanese attacked the United States at pearl Harbor, causing the. To hibernation declare war on Japan the next day. The reich government declared war on the. Some invitees were involved in these preparations, so heydrich postponed his meeting.
On 8 July, he announced that all Jews were to be regarded as partisans, and gave the order for all male jews between the ages of 15 and 45 to be shot. By august the net had been widened to include women, children, and the elderly—the entire jewish population. By the time planning was underway for the wannsee conference, hundreds of thousands of Polish, serbian, and Russian Jews had already been killed. The initial plan was to implement writing Generalplan Ost after the conquest of the soviet Union. European Jews would be deported to occupied parts of Russia, where they would be worked to death in road-building projects. Planning the conference edit letter from heydrich to martin Luther, undersecretary at the foreign Office, inviting him to the wannsee conference (Wannsee conference house memorial, berlin) On 29 november 1941, heydrich sent invitations for a ministerial conference to be held on 9 December at the. He changed the venue on 4 December to the eventual location of the meeting. He enclosed a copy of a letter from Göring dated 31 July that authorised him to plan a so-called Final solution to the jewish question.
According to the historian Timothy Snyder, "4.2 million soviet citizens (largely russians, belarusians, and Ukrainians) were starved" by the nazis (and the nazi-controlled Wehrmacht) in as a result of Backe's plan. Harvests were poor in Germany in 19food supplies were short, as large numbers of forced labourers had been brought into the country to work in the armaments industry. If these workers—as well as the german people—were to be adequately fed, there must be a sharp reduction in the number of "useless mouths of whom the millions of Jews under German rule were, in the light of nazi ideology, the most obvious example. At the time of the wannsee conference, the killing of Jews in the soviet Union had already been underway for some months. Right from the start of Operation Barbarossa —the invasion of the soviet Union— einsatzgruppen were assigned to follow the army into the conquered areas and round up and kill Jews. In a letter dated eydrich communicated to his ss and Police leaders that the einsatzgruppen were to execute comintern officials, ranking members of the communist Party, extremist and radical Communist Party members, people's commissars, and Jews in party and government posts. Open-ended instructions were given to execute "other radical elements (saboteurs, propagandists, snipers, assassins, agitators, etc.)." he instructed that any pogroms spontaneously initiated by the occupants of the conquered territories were to be quietly encouraged.
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The einsatzgruppen (special task forces) performed these murders with the support of the volksdeutscher Selbstschutz (Germanic Self-Protection Group a paramilitary group consisting of ethnic Germans living in Poland. Members of the ss, the wehrmacht (German Armed Forces and the Ordnungspolizei (Order Police; Orpo) also shot civilians during the polish campaign. Approximately 65,000 civilians were killed by the end of 1939. In addition to leaders of Polish society, they killed Jews, prostitutes, romani people, and the mentally ill. On ermann Göring gave written authorization to ss- obergruppenführer (Senior Group leader) reinhard heydrich, chief of the reich main Security Office (rsha to prepare and submit a plan for a "total solution of the jewish question" in territories under German control and to coordinate the. The resulting Generalplan Ost (General Plan sea for the east) called for deporting the population of occupied Eastern Europe and the soviet Union to siberia, for use as slave labour or to be murdered.
The minutes of the wannsee conference estimated the jewish population of the soviet Union to be five million, with another three million in Ukraine. In addition to eliminating Jews, the nazis also planned to reduce the population of the conquered territories by 30 million people through starvation in an action called the hunger Plan devised by herbert Backe. Food supplies would be diverted to the german army and German civilians. Cities would be razed and the land allowed to return to forest or resettled by german colonists. The objective of the hunger Plan was to inflict deliberate mass starvation on the Slavic civilian populations under German occupation by directing all food supplies to the german home population and the wehrmacht on the eastern Front.
Nazi germany attempted to obtain this new territory by attacking Poland and the soviet Union, intending to deport or exterminate the jews and Slavs living there, who were viewed as being inferior to the Aryan master race. Discrimination against Jews, longstanding but extralegal throughout much of Europe at the time, was codified in Germany immediately after the nazi seizure of power on The law for the restoration of the Professional civil Service, passed on 7 April of that year, excluded most Jews. Similar legislation soon deprived Jewish members of other professions of the right to practise. Violence and economic pressure were used by the regime to force jews to leave the country. Jewish businesses were denied access to markets, forbidden to advertise in newspapers, and deprived of access to government contracts.
Citizens were harassed and subjected to violent attacks and boycotts of their businesses. 1935 chart shows racial classifications under the nuremberg Laws: German, mischlinge, and Jew. In September 1935, the nuremberg Laws were enacted, prohibiting marriages between Jews and people of Germanic extraction, extramarital relations between Jews and Germans, and the employment of German women under the age of 45 as domestic servants in Jewish households. The reich Citizenship Law stated that only those of German or related blood were defined as citizens; thus, jews and other minority groups were stripped of their German citizenship. A supplementary decree issued in november defined as Jewish anyone with three jewish grandparents, or two grandparents if the jewish faith was followed. By the start of World War ii in 1939, around 250,000 of Germany's 437,000 Jews emigrated to the United States, palestine, great Britain, and other countries. After the invasion of Poland in September 1939, hitler ordered that the polish leadership and intelligentsia should be destroyed. The sonderfahndungsbuch Polen (Special Prosecution book poland)—lists of people to be killed—had been drawn up by the ss as early as may 1939.
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It was found. Robert Kempner in March 1947 among files that had been seized from the. It was used as evidence in the subsequent Nuremberg Trials. The wannsee house, site of the conference, is now a holocaust memorial. Contents Background edit legalized discrimination against Jews in Germany began immediately after the nazi seizure of power in January 1933. Violence and economic pressure were used by the nazi regime to encourage jews to voluntarily leave the country. The ideology of nazism brought together elements of antisemitism, ions racial hygiene, and eugenics and combined them with pan-Germanism and territorial expansionism resume with the goal of obtaining more lebensraum (living space) for the germanic people.
In the course of report the meeting, heydrich outlined how European Jews would be rounded up and sent to extermination camps in the, general government (the occupied part of Poland where they would be killed. Soon after the invasion of Poland in September 1939, the persecution of European Jews was raised to unprecedented levels, but systematic killing of men, women and children only began in June 1941 after the onset. Operation Barbarossa against the soviets. On Hermann Göring gave written authorization to heydrich to prepare and submit a plan for a "total solution of the jewish question" in territories under German control and to coordinate the participation of all involved government organisations. At Wannsee, heydrich emphasized that once the mass deportation was complete, the ss would take complete charge of the exterminations. A secondary goal was to arrive at a definition of who was formally jewish and thus determine the scope of the genocide. One copy of the Protocol with circulated minutes of the meeting survived the war.
Wannsee conference german : Wannseekonferenz ) was a meeting of senior government officials. Nazi germany and, schutzstaffel (SS) leaders, held in the, berlin suburb. Wannsee on The purpose of the conference, called by the director of the. Reich main Security Office, ss-, obergruppenführer, reinhard heydrich, was to ensure the cooperation of administrative leaders of various government departments in the implementation of the so-called. Final solution to the jewish question german : Endlösung der Judenfrage whereby most of the jews. German-occupied Europe would be deported to occupied Poland and murdered. Conference attendees included representatives from several government ministries, including state secretaries from the foreign Office, the justice, interior, and state ministries, and representatives from the.
Comb (Kanga) - cleanliness. The kanga is similar to a small comb and affirms its bearers commitment to society. It is tucked neatly in a sikh's uncut hair. Kanga, just as a comb helps to remove the tangles and cleans the hair, the kanga is a spiritual reminder to shed impurities of thought. Steel Bracelet (Kara) - good deeds, the kara is worn around ones wrist like a bracelet and its circular shape reminds a sikh that the Creator (God) is infinite—without a beginning and without an end, kara. The last two are a reminder that sikhs are warriors and always essay fight for righteousness. Scimitar (Kirpan), protection, the kirpan resembles a sword and symbolises the protection of the weak by sikhs. It is hung near a sikh's waist with a shoulder strap. Kirpan, soldiers long Undershorts (Kaccha ) self discipline, the kaccha (also spelt Kachhera) is similar to a soldier's undershorts, a loose, white, cotton undergarment.
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The 5 five articles of faith - panj kakkar. Sikhs display their commitment to writers their beliefs by wearing the sikh articles of faith. The five articles of faith start with the "k" alphabet in Punjabi, and are thereby referred to as the 5 K's. Kesh (uncut hair). Kara (steel bracelet). Kaccha - kachhera (soldiers shorts uncut hair (Kesh) - spirituality, sikhs do not cut their hair (kesh) but let it grow as a symbol of their faith. Because during their lifetimes it will get very long sikh men wear turbans to keep it tidy. Sikh women may either wear a turban or a scarf.