9 The name sidewinder was selected in 1950 and is the common name of Crotalus cerastes, a venomous rattlesnake, which uses infrared sensory organs to hunt warm-blooded prey. 9 10 Originally called the sidewinder 1, the first live firing was on 3 September 1952. 9 The missile intercepted a drone for the first time on the 11 September 1953. 9 The missile carried out 51 guided flights in 1954, and in 1955 production was authorised. 9 In 1954, the us air Force carried out trials with the original aim-9A and the improved aim-9B at the holloman Air development Center. 9 The first operational use of the missile was by Grumman F9F-8 cougars and fj-3 Furies of the United States navy in the middle of 1956. 9 Combat debut: taiwan Strait, 1958 edit The first combat use of the sidewinder was on September 24, 1958, with the air force of the republic of China ( taiwan during the second taiwan Strait Crisis. During that period of time, rocaf north American F-86 Sabres were routinely engaged in air battles with the people's Republic of China over the taiwan Strait.
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McLean initially called his effort "Local fuze project 602" using laboratory funding, volunteer help and fuze funding to develop what it called a heat-homing rocket. It did not receive official funding until 1951 when the effort was mature enough to show to Admiral William "deak" Parsons, the deputy Chief of the bureau of Ordnance (BuOrd). It subsequently received designation as a program in 1952. The sidewinder introduced several new technologies that made it simpler and much more reliable than its United States Air Force (usaf) counterpart, the aim-4 Falcon, under development during the same period. After disappointing experiences with the falcon your in the vietnam War, the air Force replaced its Falcons with Sidewinders. Nearly 100,000 of the first generation (aim-9B/C/D/E) of the sidewinder were produced with raytheon and General Electric as major sub-contractors. 9 Philco-ford produced the guidance and control sections of the early missiles. 9 The nato version of the first generation missile was built under licence in Germany by bodenseewerk gerätetechnik ; 9,200 examples were built. 9 A second generation of the missile (aim-9G/H/J) was introduced during 1970. These were followed from the mid-seventies by the aim-9L/P which was a substantial improvement on the early versions, particularly with an improved sr-116 reduced-smoke rocket motor. 9 The third generation of the missile (aim-9L/M) are traveled all-aspect missile which share little in common with the earlier missiles.
Hamburg used a single ir photocell as its detector along with a spinning disk with lines painted on it, alternately known as a "reticle" or "chopper". The reticle spun at a fixed speed, causing the output of the photocell to be interrupted in a pattern, and the details of this pattern indicated the bearing of the target. Although Hamburg and similar devices like madrid were essentially complete, the work of mating them to a missile had not been carried out by the time the war ended. 8 In the immediate post-war era, allied military intelligence teams collected this information, along with many of the engineers working on these projects. Several lengthy reports on the various systems were produced and disseminated among the western aircraft firms, while a number of the engineers joined these companies to work on various missile projects. By the late 1940s a wide variety of missile projects were underway, from huge systems like the bell Bomi clarification needed to small systems like air-to-air missiles. By the early 1950s, both the us air Force and royal Air Force had started major ir seeker missile projects. 8 Prototype sidewinder-1 missile on an spondylolisthesis ad-4 skyraider during flight testing The development of the sidewinder missile began in 1946 at the naval Ordnance test Station (nots inyokern, california, now the naval Air weapons Station China lake, california as an in-house research project conceived.
If the missile spins at all, the timing based on the speed of rotation of the mirror is no longer accurate. Correcting for this spin would normally require some sort of sensor to tell which way is "down" and then adding controls to correct. Instead, small control surfaces were placed at the rear of the missile with spinning disks on their outer surface; these are known as rollerons. Airflow over the disk spins them to a high speed. If the missile starts to roll, the gyroscopic force of the disk drives the control surface into the airflow, cancelling the motion. Thus the sidewinder team replaced a potentially complex control system with a simple mechanical solution. History edit Origins edit during World War ii, various researchers in Germany designed infrared guidance systems of various complexity. The most mature development of these, codenamed Hamburg, was intended for use by the Blohm voss bv 143 glide bomb in the anti-shipping role.
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The Enzian attempted to fly directly at its target, feeding the direction of the telescope into the control system as it if were a joystick. This meant the missile always flew directly at its target, and under most conditions would end up behind it, "chasing" it down. This meant that the missile had to have enough of a speed advantage over its target that it did not run out of fuel during the interception. The sidewinder peer is not guided on the actual position recorded by the detector, but on the change in position since the last sighting. So if the target remained at 5 degrees left between two rotations of the mirror, the electronics would not output any signal to the control system.
Consider a missile fired at right angles to its target; if the missile is flying at the same speed as the target, it should "lead" it by 45 degrees, flying to an impact point far in front of where the target was when it was. If the missile is traveling four times the speed of the target, it should follow an angle about 11 degrees in front. In either case, the missile should keep that angle all the way to interception, which means that the angle that the target makes against the detector is constant. It was this constant angle that the sidewinder attempted to maintain. This " proportional pursuit " system is very easy to implement, yet it offers high-performance lead calculation almost for free and can respond to changes in the target's flight path, 7 which is much more efficient and makes the missile "lead" the target. Gyro-actuated rollerons of the sidewinder However, this system also requires the missile to have a fixed roll-axis orientation.
The wings and fins of the aim-9X are much smaller and control surfaces are reversed from earlier Sidewinders with the control section located in the rear, while the wings up front provide stability. The aim-9X also features vectored thrust or jet vane control to increase maneuverability and accuracy, with four vanes inside the exhaust that move as the fins move. The last upgrade to the missile motor on the aim-9X is the addition of a wire harness that allows communication between the guidance section and the control section, as well as a new 1760 bus to connect the guidance section with the launchers digital umbilical. The sidewinder improved on the world War ii-era madrid ir range fuze used by messerschmitt 's Enzian experimental surface-to-air missile. Citation needed The first innovation was to replace the "steering" mirror with a forward-facing mirror rotating around a shaft pointed out the front of the missile. The detector was mounted in front of the mirror.
When the long axis of the mirror, the missile axis and the line of sight to the target all fell in the same plane, the reflected rays from the target reached the detector (provided the target was not very far off axis). Therefore, the angle of the mirror at the instant of detection ( w1 ) estimated the direction of the target in the roll axis of the missile. The yaw/pitch (angle w2 ) direction of the target depended on how far to the outer edge of the mirror the target was. If the target was further off axis, the rays reaching the detector would be reflected from the outer edge of the mirror. If the target was closer on axis, the rays would be reflected from closer to the centre of the mirror. Rotating on a fixed shaft, the mirror's linear speed was higher at the outer edge. Therefore, if a target was further off-axis, its "flash" in the detector occurred for a briefer time, or longer if it was closer to the center. The off-axis angle could then be estimated by the duration of the reflected pulse of infrared. The sidewinder also included a dramatically improved guidance algorithm.
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The case is made from spirally wound spring steel filled with 8 pounds (4 kg) of pbx n-3 explosive. The feasibility warhead features a safe/arm device requiring five seconds at 20 g (200 m/s) acceleration before the fuze is armed, giving a minimum range of approximately.5 kilometers. The mk36 solid-propellant rocket motor provides propulsion for the missile. A reduced-smoke propellant makes it difficult for a target to see and avoid the missile. This section also features the launch lugs used to hold the missile to the rail of the missile launcher. The forward of the three lugs has two contact buttons that electrically activate the motor igniter. The fins provide stability from an aerodynamic point of view, but it is the " rollerons " at the end of the wings spondylolisthesis providing gyroscopic precession to free-hinging control surfaces in the tail that prevent the missile from spinning in flight.
The aim-9X has several unique design features including built-in test to aid in maintenance and reliability, an electronic safe and arm device, an additional digital umbilical similar to the amraam and jet vane control. Next is a long target detector with four ir emitters and detectors that detect whether the target is moving farther away. When it detects this action taking place, it sends a signal to the warhead safe and arm device to detonate the warhead. Versions older than the aim-9L featured an influence fuze that relied on the target's magnetic field as input. Current trends in shielded wires and non-magnetic metals in aircraft construction rendered this obsolete. A sidewinder hitting a qf-4B drone (1974) The aim-9H model contained a 25-pound (11 kg) expanding rod-blast fragmentary warhead. All other models up to the aim-9M contained a 22-pound (10 kg) annular-blast fragmentary warhead. The missile's warhead rods can break rotor blades (an immediately fatal event for any helicopter). Recent models of the aim-9 are configured with an annular-blast fragmentation warhead, the wdu-17B by Argotech Corporation.
ir seeker head utilizing the rotating reticle, mirror, and five cdS cells or "pan and scan" staring array (aim-9x electric motor, and armature, all protruding into a glass dome. Directly behind this are the electronics that gather data, interpret signals, and generate the control signals that steer the missile. An umbilical on the side of the gcu attaches to the launcher, which detaches from the missile at launch. To cool the seeker head, a 5,000 psi (35 mpa ) argon bottle (tmu-72/B or A/B) is carried internally in Air Force aim-9L/m variants, while the navy uses a rail-mounted nitrogen bottle. The aim-9X model contains a stirling cryo-engine to cool the seeker elements. Two electric servos power the canards to steer the missile (except aim-9X). At the back of the gcu is a gas grain generator or thermal battery (aim-9X) to provide electrical power. The aim-9X features high off-boresight capability; together with jhmcs (Joint Helmet-mounted cueing System this missile is capable of locking on to a target that is in its field of regard said to be up to 90 degrees off boresight.
It shmoop has been built under license by some other nations including Sweden, and can even equip helicopters, such as the. The aim-9 is one of the oldest, least expensive, and most successful air-to-air missiles, with an estimated 270 aircraft kills in its history of use. 4, when firing a sidewinder, i, american and, nato pilots use the brevity code, fOX-2. The missile was designed to be simple to upgrade. The United States navy hosted a 50th anniversary celebration of its existence in 2002. Boeing won a contract in March 2010 to support Sidewinder operations through to 2055, guaranteeing that the weapons system will remain in operation until at least that date. Air Force Spokeswoman Stephanie powell noted that due to its relative low cost, versatility, and reliability it is "very possible that the sidewinder will remain in Air Force inventories through the late 21st century". Contents, the aim-9 is made up of a number of different components manufactured by different companies, including.
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The, aim-9 Sidewinder is a short-range air-to-air missile developed by the, united States navy at, china lake, california, writing in the 1950s, and subsequently adopted by the. United States Air Force. Since its entry into service in 1956, the sidewinder has proved to be an enduring international success, and its latest variants are still standard equipment in most western-aligned air forces. 3, the, soviet, k-13, a reverse-engineered copy of the aim-9, was also widely adopted by a number of nations. The majority of Sidewinder variants utilize infrared homing for guidance; the aim-9c variant used semi-active radar homing and served as the basis of the. Agm-122 Sidearm anti-radar missile. The sidewinder is the most widely used missile in the west, with more than 110,000 missiles produced for the. And 27 other nations, of which perhaps one percent have been used in combat.