Einstein was appointed associate professor in 1909. 60 Einstein became a full professor at the german Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague in April 1911, accepting Austrian citizenship in the austro-hungarian Empire to. 62 During his Prague stay, he wrote 11 scientific works, five of them on radiation mathematics and on the quantum theory of solids. In July 1912, he returned to his alma mater in Zürich. From 19, he was professor of theoretical physics at the eth zurich, where he taught analytical mechanics and thermodynamics. He also studied continuum mechanics, the molecular theory of heat, and the problem of gravitation, on which he worked with mathematician and friend Marcel Grossmann. 63 On, he was voted for membership in the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin. Max Planck and Walther Nernst visited him the next week in Zurich to persuade him to join the academy, additionally offering him the post of director at the kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics, which was soon to be established.
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He acquired Swiss citizenship in February 1901, but was not conscripted for medical reasons. With the help of Marcel Grossmann 's father, he secured a job in Bern at the federal Office for Intellectual Property, the patent office, 50 as an assistant examiner level iii. 52 53 Einstein evaluated patent applications for a variety of devices including a gravel sorter and an electromechanical typewriter. 53 In 1903, his position at the Swiss Patent Office became permanent, although he was passed over for promotion until he "fully mastered machine technology".:370 Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization. Their readings included the works of Henri poincaré, ernst Mach, and david Hume, which influenced his scientific and philosophical outlook. First scientific papers Einstein's official 1921 portrait after receiving the nobel Prize in Physics In 1900, einstein's paper "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen" conclusions from tree the capillarity Phenomena was published in the journal Annalen der Physik. 57 On, einstein completed his thesis, with Alfred Kleiner, professor of Experimental Physics, serving as pro-forma advisor. As a result, einstein was awarded a phD by the University of Zürich, with his dissertation " a new Determination of Molecular Dimensions ". In that same year, which has been called Einstein's annus mirabilis (miracle year he published four groundbreaking papers, on the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, special relativity, and the equivalence of mass and energy, which were to bring him to the notice of the academic world. Academic career by 1908, he was recognized as a leading scientist and was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern. The following year, after giving a lecture on electrodynamics and the relativity principle at the University of Zürich, Alfred Kleiner recommended him to the faculty for a newly created professorship in theoretical physics.
He wrote in 1910, while his wife was pregnant with their second child: "I think of you in heartfelt love every spare minute and am so unhappy as only a man can be". He spoke about a "misguided love" and a "missed life" regarding his love for Marie. 43 Einstein married Elsa löwenthal in 1919, after having a relationship with her since 1912. 46 She was a first cousin maternally and a second cousin paternally. 46 They emigrated to the United States in 1933, and she was diagnosed with heart and kidney problems in 1935. She died in December 1936. Friends Among Einstein's well-known friends were michele besso, paul Ehrenfest, marcel Grossmann, jános Plesch, daniel. Posin, maurice solovine, and Stephen Wise. 48 Patent office After graduating report in 1900, einstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post.
In may 1904, their son Hans Albert Einstein was born in Bern, switzerland. Their son Eduard was born in Zürich in July 1910. The couple moved to berlin in April 1914, but Marić returned to zürich with their sons after learning that Einstein's chief romantic attraction was his first and second cousin Elsa. They divorced on 14 February 1919, having lived apart for five years. Eduard had a breakdown at about age 20 and was diagnosed with schizophrenia. 41 His mother cared for him and he was also committed to asylums for several periods, finally being committed permanently after her death. In letters revealed in 2015, einstein wrote to his early love marie winteler about his marriage and his strong feelings for her.
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Albert's sister Maja later married Winteler's son paul. In January 1896, with his father's approval, einstein renounced his citizenship in the german Kingdom of Württemberg to avoid military service. In September 1896, he passed the Swiss Matura with mostly good grades, including a top grade of 6 in physics and mathematical subjects, on a scale. At 17, he enrolled in the four-year mathematics and physics teaching diploma program at the zürich Polytechnic. Marie winteler, who was a year older, moved homework to Olsberg, switzerland, for a teaching post. Einstein's future wife, a 20-year old Serbian woman Mileva marić, also enrolled at the polytechnic that year. She was the only woman among the six students in the mathematics and physics section of the teaching diploma course.
Over the next few years, paper einstein and Marić's friendship developed into romance, and they read books together on extra-curricular physics in which Einstein was taking an increasing interest. In 1900, einstein passed the exams in Maths and Physics and was awarded the federal Polytechnic teaching diploma. There have been claims that Marić collaborated with Einstein on his 1905 papers, 31 32 known as the Annus Mirabilis papers, but historians of physics who have studied the issue find no evidence that she made any substantive contributions. 34 36 Marriages and children Albert Einstein in 1904 (age 25) An early correspondence between Einstein and Marić was discovered and published in 1987 which revealed that the couple had a daughter named "Lieserl", born in early 1902 in novi sad where marić was staying. Marić returned to Switzerland without the child, whose real name and fate are unknown. The contents of Einstein's letter in September 1903 suggest that the girl was either given up for adoption or died of scarlet fever in infancy. 37 38 Einstein with his second wife Elsa, 1921 Einstein and Marić married in January 1903.
He later wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought was lost in strict rote learning. At the end of December 1894, he travelled to Italy to join his family in pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note. During his time in Italy he wrote a short essay with the title "On the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a magnetic field". 21 Einstein always excelled at maths and physics from a young age, reaching a mathematical level years ahead of his peers. The twelve year old Einstein taught himself algebra and Euclidean geometry over a single summer.
Einstein also independently discovered his own original proof of the pythagorean theorem at age. 22 A family tutor Max Talmud says that after he had given the 12 year old Einstein a geometry textbook, after a short time "Einstein had worked through the whole book. He thereupon devoted himself to higher mathematics. Soon the flight of his mathematical genius was so high I could not follow." 23 His passion for geometry and algebra led the twelve year old to become convinced that nature could be understood as a "mathematical structure". 23 Einstein started teaching himself calculus at 12, and as a 14 year old he says he had "mastered integral and differential calculus ". 24 At age 13, einstein was introduced to kant 's Critique of Pure reason, and Kant became his favorite philosopher, his tutor stating: "At the time he was still a child, only thirteen years old, yet Kant's works, incomprehensible to ordinary mortals, seemed. He failed to reach the required standard in the general part of the examination, but obtained exceptional grades in physics and mathematics. On the advice of the principal of the polytechnic, he attended the Argovian cantonal school ( gymnasium ) in Aarau, switzerland, in 18 to complete his secondary schooling. While lodging with the family of professor Jost Winteler, he fell in love with Winteler's daughter, marie.
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In 1880, the family moved to lab munich, where einstein's father and his uncle jakob founded Elektrotechnische fabrik. Einstein cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current. 5 The einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi jews, and Albert attended a catholic elementary school in Munich, from the age of 5, for three years. At the age of 8, he was transferred to the luitpold Gymnasium (now known as the Albert Einstein Gymnasium where he received advanced primary and secondary school education until he left the german Empire seven years later. In 1894, hermann and jakob's company lost a bid to supply the city of Munich with electrical lighting because they lacked the capital to convert their equipment from the direct current (DC) standard to the more efficient alternating current (AC) standard. 18 The loss forced the sale of the munich factory. In search of business, great the einstein family moved to Italy, first to milan and a few months later to pavia. When the family moved to pavia, einstein, then 15, stayed in Munich to finish his studies at the luitpold Gymnasium. His father intended for him to pursue electrical engineering, but Einstein clashed with authorities and resented the school's regimen and teaching method.
He signed the russellEinstein Manifesto with British philosopher Bertrand Russell, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. He was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, new Jersey, until his death in 1955. Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers and more than 150 non-scientific works. 11 14 His intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with "genius". 15 Eugene wigner wrote of Einstein in comparison to his contemporaries that "Einstein's understanding was deeper even than Jancsi von neumann's. His mind was both more penetrating and more original than von neumann's. And that is a very remarkable statement." 16 Contents Life and career Early life and education see also: Einstein family einstein at the age of 3 in 1882 Albert Einstein in 1893 (age 14) Einstein's matriculation certificate at the age of 17, showing his final. He scored: German 5; French 3; Italian 5; History 6; geography 4; Algebra 6; geometry 6; Descriptive geometry 6; Physics 6; Chemistry 5; Natural History 5; Art and Technical Drawing. Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the kingdom of Württemberg in the german Empire, on 5 His parents were hermann Einstein, a salesman driving and engineer, and pauline koch.
a phD by the University of Zurich. The same year, he published four groundbreaking papers during his renowned annus mirabilis (miracle year) which brought him to the notice of the academic world at the age. He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and he did not go back to germany, where he had been a professor at the berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the United States and became an American citizen in 1940. 13 On the eve of World War ii, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin. Roosevelt alerting him to the potential development of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type" and recommending that the us begin similar research. This eventually led to the manhattan Project. Einstein supported the Allied forces, but he generally denounced the idea of using nuclear fission as a weapon.
Near the beginning of his career, einstein thought that. Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led him to develop his special theory of relativity during his time at the Swiss Patent Office report in Bern (19021909 Switzerland. However, he realized that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and he published a paper on general relativity in 1916 with his theory of gravitation. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe. 11 12 he lived in Switzerland between 18, except for one year in Prague, and he received his academic diploma from the Swiss federal polytechnic school (later the eidgenössische technische hochschule, eth) in Zürich in 1900.
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For the musicologist, see. For other hibernation people, see, einstein (surname). For other uses, see, albert Einstein (disambiguation) and. German-born physicist and developer of the theory of relativity. Albert Einstein ( /aɪnstaɪn/ ; 4, german: albɛɐt ʔaɪnʃtaɪn ( listen ) was a german-born theoretical physicist 5 who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics ). 3 6 :274 His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. 7 8, he is best known to the general public for his massenergy equivalence formula, e mc 2, which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation". 9, he received the 1921, nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect 10 a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory.