The early filipino children were taught with their parents and elders in the barangay as teachers. The regular barangay school was called bothoan in panay. Everyone was taught reading, writing, and arithmetic (the 3 Rs). The ancient Filipinos had their own concepts of mathematic and geometry. They utilized this knowledge not only in their domestic and foreign trade but also building the huge rice terraces. They could count up to 100,000,000.
Tools of the Old and New Stone Age essays
All members of the barangay preserved their dignity as a person. There was no rigid social division among them. But it was customary among them that marriage arrangements were done by parents as an expression of their continuing care and it was also a tradition that they married in a very early age. Each barangay was administered by a chieftain called datu. The datu served as the chief executive, legislator, and judge assisted by the elders. So far naked there were only two written codes of laws in the Philippines: the luwaran and the Principal Sulu. The ancient Filipinos, like other people, believed in may gods, with no concept of god as an absolute being. Their gods were believed to be self-willed, capricious, whose will is unfathomable either in wrath or grace. The common language used by the early filipino together with the rest of the southeast Asian people was called Austronesian or Malayo polynesian language. They used this language not only for their daily conversations but also as a media of communication for foreign trade and commerce.
Human Rubric, indonesians, the next group of people who came was the Indonesians during the new Stone Age. They obtained their livelihood by hunting, fishing and crude farming (kaingin which made them form an organized settlement. The Indonesians were followed by the so-called e malays were more advanced than both the negritos and Indonesians. These prehistoric Malays were the first discoverers, colonizers and conquerors of the pacific world. Enough heat with abundance supply of water from nature is the pervasive factor that shaped the Philippines fertile soil an ever agricultural setting. The most concrete illustration of early filipino expertise in fruit farming was the building of the rice terraces, is the well known Banaue rice terraces, probably the eighth Wonder of the world. The early filipinos in general were all very similar in their social classes. Each barangay was divided into three social groups: the datus or nobles, the timagwas or freemen, and the oripen or dependents. Each class had its own particular duty and responsibility and the system was based on individual right over manpower.
It forces you to go slowly and see things which take time to notice. So my advice to the students of Notre dame is to buy a hard backed sketch book with good paper and go to some old and obscure european town. You could choose the florid baroque of southern Germany or perhaps the moorish work of Andalucia and come home with your sketch books filled with work by unknown architects. Make sure you find time to track down the best restaurants and always remember to buy your ink on arrival. Its Origin and Early peopling, in 1891 in Central java the upper skull of human being was found. It seems to belong to a large hominid at an intermediate stage of evolution between anthropoid ape and man. Java man was named pithecanthropus, in Greek pitnekos meaning ape and anthropus meaning man. Further evidences came to light in 1936 in Mojokerto (Surabay) in 19 in Central java. Ages after the disappearances of the dawn Man or Pithicanthropus, the aeta, agta, balaga or Dinagat, as were called by the Spaniards as Negritos, have reached these islands.
Stone Age - simple English wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
My father did a measured drawing of Humayan's resume tomb which has an uncanny similarity to the early plans for St Peter's in Rome. Whether this is due to a common architectural source or because of the inherent qualities of masonry is a great subject for a phD, but we never really looked into. My father has an aversion to an over academic approach to architecture which I share. Too much knowledge is definitely bad for creativity, you need handwriting to approach it with the naivety and zeal of a child. In 1992 we went to syracuse in Sicily following a classical architecture exhibition in Bologna which was opened by The Prince of Wales.
The cathedral is a rich blend of three of the greatest periods of Mediterranean architecture. The main structure is a 5th century bc greek doric Temple which has been turned into a church and has some superb byzantine details particularly the cosmatesque floor. To crown it all is a fabulous baroque front built 1728-54. Our drawings are similar but my father seems to have done far more than. I'm not sure why that is, perhaps I wandered off half way through, i know I did spend a lot of time trying unsuccessfully to track down Caravaggio's "Burial of saint Lucy". We had intended to see all the major sites in Sicily but when we arrived in Syracuse and found a west facing café we felt that Palermo, noto, and Agrigento would all have to be visited on other trips. For me this is the point of sketching.
The most memorable meal we had was the most delicious papardelle in a creamy fungi porcini sauce. It came to the table in the frying pan served by a waiter who looked like a figure in a carpaccio painting. In my imagination I see him with a small red cardinal's cap on but I suspect that is just memory jazzing the scene up a bit, it was over twenty years ago. We did not always go to Italy, but this was our preferred country by far. We went to Prague in the summer of 1989 only a few weeks before the berlin wall came down.
We felt that we were at the centre of Europe and at the centre of history too. My father was giving lectures to undercover pro-democratic organisations, we also unwittingly smuggled in some xerox parts for some anti-establishment friends of Roger Scruton. The customs officer found it and was so embarrassed that he did not know what it was that we were let through. We saw for the first time the fantastic curved forms of dientzenhofer's and Santini's churches and it was incredibly inspiring. It made my father feel deprived that we do not live in a time that commissions baroque work as a matter of course. The furthest we'd ever been was a trip to India which was paid for by a hotel group who wanted to use my father to design a hotel near Agra. We were taken all over Rajasthan and deposited at various sites for hours at a time which was ideal for getting stuck in to sketching. We spent at least two days at Fatehpur sikri, we also sketched the taj Mahal, the red Fort and numerous other buildings.
The history Of Stone Age Essay - 868 Words
We usually went to Italy, most often to venice or Rome, and Florence only once. My father is not a great write fan of Florence because it had too many tourists and not enough baroque to make it worthwhile. On one trip when I was thirteen, we went to the slightly lesser known towns of the Adriatic;- rimini, ascoli piceno, loreto, ancona and Split, now part of Croatia. When sketching one notices things which one would not see otherwise. For example pilasters in Ascoli piceno routinely have three rather than five or seven flutes which is an unusual 'spécialité de la maison'. These trips were as much about food as they were about architecture. On one trip we did a chart of all the restaurants we had been to and judged them on gastronomy, ambience, service and most importantly for a thirteen year old quantity. I meticulously filled in a chart at the back of my sketch book each evening.
The important issue for my father was that you had a writers sketch book rather than loose leaves of paper and the sketch book was to be hard backed and not spiral bound. One of the cardinal sins was to tear a page out because this would ruin the structure of the book. For several years the whole family went to venice en masse. The combination of the architecture with the lido nearby proved an unbeatable attraction. For these trips we used to travel by train which was great fun. I always loved waking up and seeing some provincial station flash past. Every year when we passed the suburbs of Verona my father made us crane our necks to see sanmicheli's Madonna di campagna.
a liability sketching even if bought on site. I remember one particularly windy day in Venice when we were sketching St Stae sitting on the steps by the Grand Canal and a particularly strong gust of wind lifted the bottle of ink off the pavement and caused it to splatter all over. This was a source of great humour that evening as we had been urging him to get rid of them all holiday. We generally brought sketch books with. My father until the mid 80s always used canvas bound sketch books bought at Sénèlier's in Paris. But since then he has taken up using sketch books with marbled covers which are sold in small boutiques in Venice. The paper type needs to be chosen with care. One of my father's marbled sketch books has paper which has the feel of cloth and so bleeds like blotting paper when you try to get a nice ink line. Other papers do not allow the ink to absorb at all the problems are endless.
A café in the right location was an important element. Cafés provided the basic infrastructure of a chair, table, water for watercolours and a shield from people watching. Finding a café overlooking the right view with the correct resume orientation was often fairly tricky. To satisfy all these criteria was a bit like trying to get a 'q' on a triple letter score in scrabble. Our favourite was the Gritti in Venice which for the small fee of a very expensive cinzano one can sit all day and sketch Santa maria della salute overlooking the Grand Canal with no disturbances. The other major complication was materials. We had a policy never to carry ink out with us, because of the damage one loosely tightened lid in a suitcase can do to an entire wardrobe. Far greater than a misplaced red sock in a white wash. So on arriving in Rome, prague or wherever, we always needed to find an art shop and buy ink and other materials we had forgotten.
The Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Era) - penfield Central School District
Sketching with my father is the lab corner stone of my architectural education and from about the age of ten my parents took me to see the great master pieces of European architecture. In each city we visited, my father and I would spend the day sketching while my mother took my sisters shopping or to a beach. Sketching in a foreign city is not simply a matter of plonking yourself down in front of the local masterpiece, baedeker in hand. First you need to find the building or view that is genuinely interesting and this may be a building unknown to the art historians. My father always took great pleasure in drawing a great work which was never written. All too often people are led to appreciate architecture through the eyes of art historians or the celebrity status of the architect. This my father sometimes took to extremes. I remember once in Borromini's St ivo in Rome he took great pleasure in rendering a fairly banal picture frame rather than the church itself. One also needed to think of orientation, most critically working out where the sun would be in three hours time so that you were not looking directly at it later in the day.