Essay on national integration pdf

Essay on National integration for Children and Students

essay on national integration pdf

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This difference in latency is termed the redundancy gain (RG). 41 In a study done by forster, cavina-Pratesi, aglioti, and Berlucchi (2001 normal observers responded faster to simultaneous visual and tactile stimuli than to single visual or tactile stimuli. Rt to simultaneous visual and tactile stimuli was also faster than rt to simultaneous dual visual or tactile stimuli. The advantage for rt to combined visual-tactile stimuli over rt to the other types of stimulation could be accounted for by intersensory neural facilitation rather than by probability summation. These effects can be ascribed to the convergence of tactile and visual inputs onto neural centers which contain flexible multisensory representations of body parts. 42 Multisensory illusions edit McGurk effect edit It has been found that two converging bimodal stimuli can produce a perception that is not only different in magnitude than the sum of its parts, but also quite different in quality. In a classic study labeled the McGurk effect, 43 a person's phoneme production was dubbed with a video of that person speaking a different phoneme. 44 The end result was the perception of a third, different phoneme.

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The degree of synchrony that is required for this 'binding' to occur is currently being investigated in a variety of approaches. It should be noted here that the integrative function only occurs to a point beyond which the subject can differentiate them as two opposing stimuli. Concurrently, a significant intermediate conclusion can be drawn from the research thus far. Multisensory stimuli that are bound into a single percept, are also bound on the same receptive fields book of multisensory neurons in the sc and cortex. 26 Decreasing reaction time edit responses to multiple simultaneous sensory stimuli can be faster than responses to the same stimuli presented in isolation. Hershenson (1962) presented a light and tone simultaneously and separately, and asked human participants to respond as rapidly as possible to them. As the asynchrony between the onsets of both stimuli was varied, it was observed that for certain degrees of asynchrony, reaction times were decreased. 38 These levels of asynchrony were quite small, perhaps reflecting the temporal window that exists in multisensory neurons of the. Further studies have analysed the reaction times of saccadic eye movements; 39 and more recently correlated these findings writing to neural phenomena. 40 In patients studied by gonzalo, 18 with lesions in the parieto-occipital cortex, the decrease in the reaction time to a given stimulus by means of intersensory facilitation was shown to be very remarkable. Redundant target effects edit The redundant target effect is the observation that people typically respond faster to double targets (two targets presented simultaneously) than to either of the targets presented alone.

Although this enabled rapid progression of neural mapping, and an improved understanding of neural structures, the essay investigation of perception remained relatively stagnant, with a few exceptions. The recent revitalized enthusiasm into perceptual research is indicative of a substantial shift away from reductionism and toward gestalt methodologies. Gestalt theory, dominant in the late 19th and early 20th centuries espoused two general principles: the 'principle of totality' in which conscious experience must be considered globally, and the 'principle of psychophysical isomorphism' which states that perceptual phenomena are correlated with cerebral activity. Just these ideas were already applied by justo gonzalo in his work of brain dynamics, where a sensory-cerebral correspondence is considered in the formulation of the "development of the sensory field due to a psychophysical isomorphism" (pag. 23 of the English translation of ref. Both ideas 'principle of totality' and 'psychophysical isomorphism' are particularly relevant in the current climate and have driven researchers to investigate the behavioural benefits of multisensory integration. Decreasing sensory uncertainty edit It has been widely acknowledged that uncertainty in sensory domains results in an increased dependence of multisensory integration. 26 Hence, it follows that cues from multiple modalities that are both temporally and spatially synchronous are viewed neurally and perceptually as emanating from the same source.

essay on national integration pdf

National Integration Essay in Simple words for Students ias paper

The independence of priors and likelihoods is not assured since the prior may vary with likelihood only by the representations. However, the independence has been proved by Shams with series of parameter control in multi sensory perception experiment. 31 Principles edit The contributions of Barry Stein, Alex Meredith, and their colleagues (e.g."The merging of the senses" 1993, 32 ) are widely considered to be the groundbreaking work in the modern field of multisensory statement integration. Through detailed long-term study of the neurophysiology of the superior colliculus, they distilled three general principles by which multisensory integration may best be described. The spatial rule 33 34 states that slogan multisensory integration is more likely or stronger when the constituent unisensory stimuli arise from approximately the same location. The temporal rule 34 35 states that multisensory integration is more likely or stronger when the constituent unisensory stimuli arise at approximately the same time. The principle of inverse effectiveness 36 37 states that multisensory integration is more likely or stronger when the constituent unisensory stimuli evoke relatively weak responses when presented in isolation. Perceptual and behavioral consequences edit a unimodal approach dominated scientific literature until the beginning of this century.

However, depending on the discrepancies between modalities, there might be different forms of stimuli fusion: integration, partial integration, and segregation. To fully understand the other two types, we have to use causal inference model without the assumption as cue combination model. This freedom gives us general combination of any numbers of signals and modalities by using bayes' rule to make causal inference of sensory signals. 30 The hierarchical. Non-hierarchical models edit The difference between two models is that hierarchical model can explicitly make causal inference to predict certain stimulus while non-hierarchical model can only predict joint probability of stimuli. However, hierarchical model is actually a special case of non-hierarchical model by setting joint prior as a weighted average of the prior to common and independent causes, each weighted by their prior probability. Based on the correspondence of these two models, we can also say that hierarchical is a mixture modal of non-hierarchical model. Independence of likelihoods and priors edit for bayesian model, the prior and likelihood generally represent the statistics of the environment and the sensory representations.

Essay on National Integration in India

essay on national integration pdf

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Alais and Burr (2004 found that following progressive degradation in the quality of a visual stimulus, participants' perception of spatial location was determined progressively more by a simultaneous auditory cue. 26 However, they also progressively changed the temporal uncertainty of the auditory cue; eventually concluding that it is the uncertainty of individual modalities that determine to girl what extent information app from each modality is considered when forming a percept. 26 This conclusion is similar in some respects to the 'inverse effectiveness rule'. The extent to which multisensory integration occurs may vary according to the ambiguity of the relevant stimuli. In support of this notion, a recent study shows that weak senses such as olfaction can even modulate the perception of visual information as long as the reliability of visual signals is adequately compromised. 27 bayesian integration edit The theory of bayesian integration is based on the fact that the brain must deal with a number of inputs, which vary in reliability.

28 In dealing with these inputs, it must construct a coherent representation of the world that corresponds to reality. The bayesian integration view is that the brain uses a form of bayesian inference. 29 This view has been backed up by computational modeling of such a bayesian inference from signals to coherent representation, which shows similar characteristics to integration in the brain. 29 cue combination. Causal inference models edit with the assumption of independence between various sources, traditional cue combination model is successful in modality integration.

19 Multisensory research has recently gained enormous interest and popularity. Example of spatial congruent and structural congruent edit When we hear a car honk, we would determine which car triggers the honk by which car we see is the spatially closest to the honk. It's a spatial congruent example by combining visual and auditory stimuli. On the other hand, the sound and the pictures of a tv program would be integrated as structural congruent by combining visual and auditory stimuli. However, if the sound and the pictures were not meaningfully fit, we would segregate the two stimuli. Therefore, whether spatial or structural congruent should not only combine the stimuli but also be determined by understanding.

Theories and approaches edit visual dominance edit literature on spatial crossmodal biases suggests that visual modality often influences information from other senses. 20 Some research indicates that vision dominates what we hear, when varying the degree of spatial congruency. This is known as the ventriloquist effect. 21 In cases of visual and haptic integration, children younger than 8 years of age show visual dominance when required to identify object orientation. However, haptic dominance occurs when the factor to identify is object size. 22 23 Modality appropriateness edit According to welch and Warren (1980 the modality Appropriateness Hypothesis states that the influence of perception in each modality in multisensory integration depends on that modality's appropriateness for the given task. Thus, vision has a greater influence on integrated localization than hearing, and hearing and touch have a greater bearing on timing estimates than vision. 24 25 More recent studies refine this early qualitative account of multisensory integration.

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This effect was also found latter in normals by Krakov 15 and Hartmann, 16 as well as the fact that great the visual acuity could be improved by other type of stimuli. 16 It is also noteworthy the amount of work in the early thirties on intersensory relations in soviet Union, reviewed by london. 17 A remarkable multisensory research is the extensive work of Gonzalo 18 in the forties on the characterization of a multisensory syndrome in patients with parieto-occipital cortical lesions. In this syndrome, all the sensory functions are affected, and with symmetric bilaterality, in spite of being a unilateral lesion where the primary areas were not involved. A feature of this syndrome is the great permeability to crossmodal effects degenerative between visual, tactile, auditive stimuli as well as muscular effort to improve the perception, also decreasing the reaction times. The improvement by crossmodal effect was found to be greater as the primary stimulus to be perceived was weaker, and as the cortical lesion was greater (Vol i and ii of reference 18 ). This author interpreted these phenomena under a dynamic physiological concept, and from a model based on functional gradients through the cortex and scaling laws of dynamical systems, thus highlighting the functional unity of the cortex. According to the functional cortical gradients, the specificity of the cortex would be distributed in gradation, and the overlap of different specific gradients would be related to multisensory interactions.

essay on national integration pdf

Gestalt psychology schools that advocate a holistic approach to the operation of the brain, 5 6 the physiological processes underlying the formation of percepts and conscious experience have been mit vastly understudied. Nevertheless, burgeoning neuroscience research continues to enrich our understanding of the many details of the brain, including neural structures implicated in multisensory integration such as the superior colliculus (SC) 7 and various cortical structures such as the superior temporal gyrus (GT) and visual and auditory. Although the structure and function of the sc are well known, the cortex and the relationship between its constituent parts are presently the subject of much investigation. Concurrently, the recent impetus on integration has enabled investigation into perceptual phenomena such as the ventriloquism effect, 8 rapid localization of stimuli and the McGurk effect ; 9 culminating in a more thorough understanding of the human brain and its functions. History edit Studies of sensory processing in humans and other animals has traditionally been performed one sense at a time, 10 and to the present day, numerous academic societies and journals are largely restricted to considering sensory modalities separately ( 'vision Research', 'hearing Research' etc.). However, there is also a long and parallel history of multisensory research. An example is the Stratton's (1896) experiments on the somatosensory effects of wearing vision-distorting prism glasses. 11 12 Multisensory interactions or crossmodal effects in which the perception of a stimulus is influenced by the presence of another type of stimulus are referred since very early in the past. They were reviewed by hartmann 13 in a fundamental book where, among several references to different types of multisensory interactions, reference is made to the work of Urbantschitsch in 1888 14 who reported on the improvement of visual acuity by auditive stimuli in subjects with.

around. It was investigated initially in the visual domain (colour, motion, depth, and form then in the auditory domain, and recently in the multisensory areas. It can be said therefore, that the binding problem is central to multisensory perception. 4, however, considerations of how unified conscious representations are formed are not the full focus of multisensory Integration research. It is obviously important for the senses to interact in order to maximize how efficiently people interact with the environment. For perceptual experience and behavior to benefit from the simultaneous stimulation of multiple sensory modalities, integration of the information from these modalities is necessary. Some of the mechanisms mediating this phenomenon and its subsequent effects on cognitive and behavioural processes will be examined hereafter. Perception is often defined as one's conscious experience, and thereby combines inputs from all relevant senses and prior knowledge. Perception is also defined and studied in terms of feature extraction, which is several hundred milliseconds away from conscious experience. Notwithstanding the existence.

Stimuli and sensory modalities edit, there are four attributes of stimulus: modality, intensity, location, and duration. The neocortex in the mammalian brain has parcellations that primarily process sensory input from one modality. For example, primary visual thesis area, v1, or primary somatosensory area,. These areas mostly deal with low-level stimulus features such as brightness, orientation, intensity, etc. These areas have extensive connections to each other as well as to higher association areas that further process the stimuli and are believed to integrate sensory input from various modalities. However, recently multisensory effects have been shown to occur in primary sensory areas as well. 3, binding problem edit, main article: Binding problem, the relationship between the binding problem and multisensory perception can be thought of as a question the binding problem, and potential solution multisensory perception.

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Multisensory integration, also known as multimodal integration, is the study of words how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system. 1, a coherent representation of objects combining modalities enables us to have meaningful perceptual experiences. Indeed, multisensory integration is central to adaptive behavior because it allows us to perceive a world of coherent perceptual entities. 2, multisensory integration also deals with how different sensory modalities interact with one another and alter each other's processing. Contents, general introduction edit, multimodal perception is a scientific term that describes how humans form coherent, valid, and robust perception by processing sensory stimuli from various modalities. Surrounded by multiple objects and receiving multiple sensory stimulations, the brain is faced with the decision of how to categorize the stimuli resulting from different objects or events in the physical world. The nervous system is thus responsible for whether to integrate or segregate certain groups of temporally coincident sensory signals based on the degree of spatial and structural congruence of those stimulations. Multimodal perception has been widely studied in cognitive science, behavioral science, and neuroscience.

essay on national integration pdf
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Multisensory integration, also known as multimodal integration, is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system. Todays students must be prepared to thrive in a constantly evolving technological landscape. Standards for Students are designed to empower student voice and ensure that learning.

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