the translator is the servant or slave of the original. A translator is a magpie among peacocks (i.e. Trying to look like a peacock but failing). The translator is like phaeton, who wanted to drive the chariot of the sun and was punished for his presumption (i.e. If he dares to challenge the mastery of the original). A translation is the echo of a song. A translation offers false pearls in place of diamonds. A translation is like the reverse side of a tapestry.
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In this context we can see translation as a process that enables us (through those who translate) to understand something we did not understand before. Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies states that the latin word translatio, like the Greek metaphora, can be used to mean both metaphor and translation (R. When speaking about translation, we encounter various myths and metaphors connected. One of the oldest myths would probably be the babel myth, as Andrew Chesterman explains in his On the Idea of a theory (2007 This myth has had major consequences for our perception of translation. We see it as tainted by the fall from the paradise of perfect communication, by failure; it is always second-best, never as good as the original; and so on (5). Based on this myth, there might exist a notion of translation as being something rather easy simply a re-writing of a text while using different words and therefore not considered as good as the original, because they would no longer be the intended author. Johnatan evans says that Explaining nation translation to non-translators is sometimes difficult. As translation is a complex action, we tend to describe it using metaphors, some of which are more accurate than others (J. Many of the metaphors have various, not very pleasant implications. Chesterman paraphrases several metaphors from the renaissance period in Europe that are connected to literary translation: 11 12 Translation is (like) imitation. The translator is like a painter who shows a person s body but not his soul.
It often results in graphs, tables and figures which are in consequence described and conclusions are drawn from them. Qualitative research works with data that are not so easily processed. They often have more personal nature and it is harder to analyse and categorize them. In this thesis, the qualitative part of the research takes the form of a focus group. A focus group experiment is a discussion of a group of people. There is a moderator who 10 11 leads the discussion in order to collect all the relevant data that might be needed in the research. Relevant passages are later processed and used as the source for the research. 2.2 Definition of Translation Translation is an act of rendering from one language to another, in other for words, translator reproduces, or communicates, a message from the source language (SL) into the target language (TL).
If the text is too free, we talk about adaptation. On the other hand, if the translator sticks to the original text, his or her translation is called literal, or word-for-word translation. According to the purpose of the text and its final audience, either free or literal translation may be appropriate. In reality, the theory is much more complex and it has many other aspects, but for our purposes this brief outline for is sufficient. There are two types of research that are nowadays in translation and other studies widely used; very often in combination. This thesis also applies both of the types quantitative and qualitative the research. Quantitative research collects data which can be easily generalised and measured.
The term is necessary to distinguish between English language as a mother tongue and English 9 10 language acquired later, secondarily. In some contexts, the term esl (English as a secondary language) is used as well, even though here we preferred efl. Another abbreviation is tefl which stands for teaching English as a foreign Language. It refers to the kind of teaching when English is taught to someone whose first language is not English,. Teachers can be both native and nonnative. A similar term would be tesl, but we do not use it in this thesis. From the beginning of translation studies there has been established a scale that measures how close the translation is to the original. The translation can be either Free or Literal. To describe it briefly, the more the translator rephrases and changes the text, the more free the final text.
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Because the research part of the thesis deals with translation from English to czech, the source language stands for English, and the target language is czech. Correspondingly, the source text (ST) and the target text (TT) stand for the original text and the translated text,. English text and czech text. Some scholars, mainly in the czech academic environment, use terms L1 and. L1 stands for sl and L2 for.
In this thesis, however, these are not musk used in order to preserve consistency of terms and to avoid ambiguity. Rich points are segments (words or short sentences) which are somehow demanding for the translator. Misunderstanding of them can be crucial for the text as a whole. There are usually many possibilities of how they can be translated but only some of them are appropriate. Identifying rich points is useful and widely used in translation studies, because on their basis, conclusions can be made reliably and clearly. The abbreviation efl stands for English as a foreign Language.
To prove this claim, we have asked nine students of English language and literature to participate in a research in which they were asked to express their attitudes towards literary translation in teaching. Among the respondents there were students of English language and literature, students of English translation, as well as students of teaching English as a foreign language. Majority of them currently study ma programmes and all of them have a cae or cpe level of English proficiency. On the basis of these facts, we regard their responds as a relevant and adequate proof that literary translation used in teaching may be beneficial for students of English language in various aspects. 7 8 The following chapters will provide a definition and a brief history of translation, an overview of history of translation in teaching, and will present several interesting approaches that have been recently developed in order to free translation from its Grammar-Translation shadow.
Second part of the thesis is devoted to the hereinbefore mentioned research and describes its objectives, methods and results. The research has two parts, quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative part presents a questionnaire and the findings based on the respondents answers while the qualitative part consists of an analysis of a target group discussion as well as of the examination of translations that were translated by the participants. 8.1 Definition of key terms. Translation Number of terms that have been used in the thesis might be interpreted in various ways, since many of these have not been permanently and homogenously established yet. To avoid any possible misunderstandings or confusions that could occur, we will provide a basic overview of terms connected to translation and teaching that we have used. Source language (SL) and target language (TL) are basic terms in translation studies. Source language is always the language of the original work, whereas target language is the language of the completed translation.
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It follows from the fact that a literary translator has to be able not only to translate from 6 7 one language to another, but also to interpret humorous features of a specific work, to pass on the feelings or emotions connected with the text. Not to mention the obvious need for a translator to master his or her own mother tongue. The complexity of abilities required in literary translation leads us to the explanation of why it was chosen as a topic for this work. Translating is a challenging process in which a translator has to implement his knowledge of a particular foreign language and a related culture, as well as knowledge of his or her own language and culture. While learning a foreign language, being it English or any other language, students should acquire number of skills essay that would help them to become successful communicators of a desired language. In the course of history many methods had been developed to achieve this goal and many of them have been replaced or forgotten. We have already mentioned the shadow that was casted on translation if approached as a method or tool in teaching. Nevertheless, we wish to demonstrate via this work that translation, literary translation in particular, is a suitable means of teaching English.
Since then, it is not easy, if not even almost impossible, to obtain a positive response to the matter of translation in the classroom from English language teachers. Not to connect translation with the rather fearsome method has proven to be rather challenging. The topic of translation in teaching has recently been brought to light when Masaryk university hosted online an English language conference where Anthony pym mentioned how translation has developed into a communicative technique of teaching. His plenary speech has been an inspiration for this thesis in many aspects and his presentation, as well as the study connected to it, will be discussed later in the work. In the thesis, we would like to differentiate translation from the aforementioned Grammar-Translation method and present a divergent standpoint in the matter of applicability and efficiency of translation within the English language teaching. To achieve this goal, we have opted for, in our opinion, one of the most demanding (as well as interesting) types of translation literary translation. Literary translation is considered to be one of the highest forms of translation due to its immense complexity. There are scholars who would even claim that some of the forms of literature are not translatable.
Introduction Translation Definition of key terms Definition of Translation Brief History of Translation Translation Nowadays Translation as a teaching Technique history of Translation in teaching Grammar-Translation Method and the reform movement Translation in Class from a different Perspective conclusion of the Theoretical Part Research Research. Introduction Translation in teaching has been a widely discussed topic among the English language teachers for many years. It is probably one of the most important and most controversial issues in the history of teaching since the nineteenth century. Unfortunately, the position of translation, although its importance in the course of history of teaching is apparent, was stricken at the foundation when the Grammar-Translation method emerged and became the main technique of teaching languages. Once its impropriety and ponderousness was (rightly) detected and the method has been jettisoned, the general view on translation rapidly changed.
Je zaměřena na výuku jazyka anglického v českém prostředí, její poznatky však lze aplikovat na výuku cizích jazyků obecně. Práce se skládá z teoretické a praktické části. Teoretická část pojednává o historii překladu s důrazem na užití překladu ve výuce. Praktická část se v návaznosti na teoretický úvod snaží s pomocí kvantitativního i kvalitativního výzkumu zodpovědět otázku, zda je literární překlad pro výuku vhodný. 2 3 Declaration I declare that I worked on this thesis on my own and that i used only sources mentioned in the bibliography section. I agree with storing my work in the library of the faculty of Education of Masaryk university in Brno in order to be available for educational purposes. Prohlášení Prohlašuji, že qualitative jsem diplomovou práci zpracovala samostatně a použila jen prameny uvedené v seznamu literatury. Souhlasím, aby byla práce uložena na masarykově univerzitě v brně v knihovně pedagogické fakulty a zpřístupněna ke studijním účelům.
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1 masaryk biography university faculty of education department of English Language and Literature literary Translation in tefl diploma thesis Brno 2015 Supervisor: Mgr. Alena Vrabcová 2 keywords: translation, literary translation, translation in teaching, teaching English as a foreign language, tefl, efl, metaphor, translation analysis, communicative method, source text, source language, target text, target language, rich points Klíčová slova: překlad, umělecký překlad, překlad ve výuce, výuka angličtiny jako cizího. Its focus lies in the teaching of English language in czech background, but its findings apply to foreign language teaching in general. The thesis consists of both theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part discusses the history of translation with the emphasis on the use of translation in teaching. The practical part endeavours, on the basis of theoretical introduction and executed research, to answer the question, whether the literary translation in teaching is appropriate or not. Anotace tato diplomová práce se zabývá využitím překladu literárních textů při výuce cizího jazyka.